Repairs & Replacements
This is the part of the brake system that actually stops the car. They are usually made of solid cast iron and can be ventilated (depending on vehicle weight and power). The action of stopping is caused by the friction of the brake pads pressing down hard on the brake discs. Brake discs are subjected to very extreme temperatures and conditions. Over time, the discs can become worn and develop hotspots which will cause the wheels to wobble (vibration in the steering wheel).
Brake Disc Skimming
Skimming the discs so that they perfectly match the drive flange again will eliminate issues and prevent the need for replacement.
Skimming is necessary when:
- Discs are corroded or rusty
- There is brake shudder
- Brakes feel spongy
These are components of braking systems using brake discs and are steel backing plates with friction material bound to the surface. They make contact with the brake disc in order to stop wheel rotation. Brake pads should be replaced regularly and are usually equipped with a thin piece of soft metal that causes the brakes to squeal when the pads are too thin.
It is composed of soft but extremely tough and heat-resistant material which is attached to the brake pad or brake shoe (usually using high temperature adhesives or rivets). The brake lining in either case is the part which actually makes contact with the brake disc or drum.
Brake drums are the alternative to disk brakes. This round, hollow part of the brake mechanism is attached to the wheel and has pressure applied to it by the brake shoes in order to arrest wheel rotation (an alternate system to using brake discs). This system is sometimes found in the rear brakes of a car, while brake discs are used in the front brakes. Older cars may have this system in the front and back.
Brake Drum Skimming
As with brake discs, deep scores sometimes get worn into brake drums (unlike brake discs, contact is made on the inside of the brake drum). When this happens, a brake drum can be refinished/skimmed.
These are components of braking systems using brake drums and carry the brake lining which is riveted or glued to the shoe. When the brakes are applied, the shoe moves and presses the lining against the inside of the brake drum, stopping wheel rotation.
It is a type of hydraulic fluid which turns force into pressure. It must have a very high boiling point to avoid vaporization because, during braking, the brake fluid is subjected to very high temperatures. As the driver applies the brakes, the fluid is forced into cylinders at each car wheel by the master cylinder, moving a pair of pistons outwards in order to thrust the brake shoes against the brake drums.
Brake Fluid Flush
The problem with brake fluid is that it is hygroscopic. This means that it is inclined to absorb water very easily (even from the air). When this happens, the boiling point of the fluid decreases and braking performance is compromised. Also, the more water the brake fluid absorbs, the more corrosive it becomes and it will eventually cause damage to other parts in the brake system. This is why your brake fluid needs to be flushed out and replaced.
Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an engine. It has become the primary fuel delivery system used in automotive petrol engines, having almost completely replaced carburetors in the late 1980s. With the advent of electronic fuel injection (EFI), the diesel and gasoline hardware has become similar. EFI’s programmable firmware has permitted common hardware to be used with different fuels.
The fuel pump draws fuel from the car’s fuel tank and has check valves located at its inlet and outlet ports which force the fuel to flow in one direction only. Its job is to supply the fuel injector with this pressurized fuel by sending the fuel through the fuel filter to a fuel rail. This fuel rail is directly connected to the fuel injectors and any excess fuel which is not used by the fuel injectors goes back to the fuel tank through a return line.
The oil in one’s engine can become filled with sludge deposits (due to different types of residue created by the overall engine combustion). In the most extreme case, the sludge in an engine can become thick enough to block the passages and cause an engine failure. What an engine flush (or, to be more specific, an engine oil flush) does is it literally flushes all the sludge out of your engine and replaces it with new, clean oil.
A starter motor is a very powerful DC electric motor with a solenoid attached to it. It is connected to the car battery so that it can acquire a high enough current in order to crank the engine and start it. The solenoid acts as a switch which, when activated, allows a closed connection between the battery and the starter motor.
An alternator is used in a motor vehicle to charge the battery and power the electrical system of the vehicle while the engine is running. It generates electricity in the same way that a DC generator does: when the magnetic field around the conductor changes, a current is created in the conductor.
This device blends the air and fuel which enters a vehicle’s engine. It consists of an open pipe through which the air passes into the inlet manifold and fuel is brought into this air flow by small holes in the pipe. The flow of fuel is controlled by calibrated jets in these orifices which are affected by how much the accelerator pedal is depressed.
Surprisingly enough, petrol engines are not very efficient in converting chemical energy into mechanical power. 70% of the energy in petroleum fuel is converted into heat and therefore, a vehicle’s engine needs a cooling system to control this. An engine runs at its best when the coolant is about 93 degrees Celsius. At this temperature, the engine is hot enough to allow the oil to flow freely, to allow the fuel to vaporize easily and to minimize metal wear. It is also not too hot to cause engine burnout.
Cooling System Flush
Over time, the coolant and antifreeze chemicals in an engine (used to prevent the engine from overheating) deteriorate under usage. This causes them to lose their resistance to freezing and boiling. Also, engines contain quite a number of parts in the cooling system that rust. This, along with other components corroding, can cause the system to become clogged over time. In extreme cases, a cooling system blockage can occur. To prevent this, a cooling system flush is recommended, it flushes all the old chemicals out of your car’s engine and cleans it of any particles that have built up due to corrosion.
Whether your engine is idling or performing at its full capacity, the fact remains that it contains a host of moving metal parts which would, were it not for some form of lubrication, violently overheat. This is why there is an oil pump which directs oil to all the metal-contacting surfaces in the engine. The oil pump uses a high pressure system to draw oil from the oil pan and submit it through several passages in the engine to specific parts.
This is a pump which is driven by the cam belt and which circulates water whenever the engine is running. The water is continuously drawn from the centre of the pump (which is where the inlet is) by the pump vanes which fling the water outside the pump, where it can then enter the engine. After flowing through the engine, the water is transmitted to the radiator and finally back to the input of the water pump.
Spark Plug and Glow Plug
The spark plug fits into the cylinder head of an engine and ignites the compressed petrol by means of an electric spark when the car is started. Diesel cars do not use spark plugs to induce engine combustion. A diesel car uses a glow plug to raise the temperature of the air to a point where the diesel fuel combusts spontaneously.
Also known as the timing belt, it controls the timing of the engine valves. Cam belts replaced the older style timing chains; however, certain car manufacturers have reverted back to timing chains due to their durability. The cam belt connects the crank shaft, which controls the pistons of the engine, to the camshaft, which controls the opening and closing of the engine’s valves. A cam belt is typically made of rubber and high-tensile fibres (made of fibreglass or Kevlar) which act to withhold tension. The cam belt must be replaced at the car manufacturer’s scheduled time/distance intervals; otherwise a complete breakdown or engine failure could occur (which would cost much more to repair than a timing belt replacement).
Crank Shaft / Camshaft
This part of the engine is rotated by the timing/cam belt and is connected to the pistons of an engine through crank pins which allow its rotation to be translated into the linear piston motion. This part of the engine is rotated by the timing/cam belt and its job is to open the valves which control the air/fuel intake and exhaust of the engine. The relationship between the camshaft and crank shaft rotations is of critical importance because of the fact that the valves need to be opened at the appropriate time during the piston stroke. The timing belt is responsible for this vital synchronization.
A longitudinal drive shaft delivers power from the engine/transmission to the front or back of the vehicle (depending on whether itis front-wheel drive or rear wheel drive, or in some cases, four-wheel drive) before going to the wheels.This central differential then transmits the power to the wheels via a much shorter drive shaft.
To The reason why a vehicle has a gearbox transmission is because of the fact that while the engine typically operates between 600 to about 7000 rpm (revolutions per minute), the wheels only rotate between 0 to 1800 rpm. Also, the engine provides its maximum torque output in the middle of its range (more or less) while the highest amount of torque is often required for pull away. Therefore, some kind of transformation needs to take place in order for engine power to be transmitted to the wheels. The gearbox transmission is responsible for this.
The most common problem that occurs with the clutch is that the friction material on the clutch plate wears out and thus causes the clutch to start slipping. This wearing only occurs when the clutch plate and flywheel are spinning at different speeds. Once they are locked together and spinning at the same speed, no wear occurs. In the most extreme case, the clutch will cease to draw any power from the engine to the wheels and will need to be replaced.
This is a system which provides mechanical assistance for steering a car. Most power steering systems in motor vehicles are controlled by hydraulic pressure which is provided by a special rotor or rotary vane pump which is powered by the vehicle’s engine.
Power Steering Flush
Dirt and debris gradually collects in the steering fluid over time. If the fluid does become excessively contaminated, it could lead to problems with the vehicle’s steering system and should be flushed out and replaced with new fluid.
This refers to the system of shock absorbers, springs and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. The suspension contributes to the safe handling and braking of a car,while also creating a comfortable ride for the occupants and isolating them from road noise and vibration. It is of utmost importance for the suspension to keep the wheels in contact with the road as much as possible, otherwise the traction of the car will not be sufficient to ensure safe handling.
The wheel bearings allow the wheels of a vehicle to rotate easily and also support the weight of the vehicle. To be able to do this, wheel bearings always need to be in good condition and free of leaks (in order to keep the lubricant inside and contaminants out).
A big challenge in the design of a motor vehicle’s power transmission system is the fact that the engine’s power does not simply get transmitted to the wheels in a straight line. At some point, the drive shaft needs to transmit power at an angle to reach the wheels. The CV joints allow this to happen by transmitting power at a constant rotational speed through an angle without any noticeable increase in friction.
The main principles behind the functioning of an airconditioner are evaporation,condensation, compression and expansion. The airconditioning system in a motor vehicle is connected by hard tubing and flexible hoses that transport refrigerant around the whole system.The entire air conditioning system consists of five main parts and steps:
Compressor, Receiver and Condenser
The compressor is connected to the crankshaft of the engine and pumps refrigerant vapour under high pressure to the condenser when the air conditioning system is turned on.
The liquid refrigerant then moves to a reservoir-like vessel, called the receiver-dryer, which removes any moisture that may have leaked into the refrigerant (moisture can cause ice crystals which create blockages in the system).
Expansion Valve and Evaporator
The pressurized refrigerant is then moved to the expansion valve which removes the pressure from the liquid refrigerant so that it can expand and become refrigerant vapour in the evaporator.
The evaporator is located inside the passenger compartment, just above the foot well. As the cold, low-pressure refrigerant is passed into the evaporator, it absorbs and vaporizes heat from the passenger compartment (by means of a blower fan which blows air from the passenger department over the evaporator so that cold air is circulated inside the car).